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Projection Methods Used In Mechanical Drawing – A Complete Guide

Engineering drawings are a highly detailed way of representing three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional surface, such as paper or a computer screen. This can be accomplished by including multiple views of different sides of an object in a single image or by including all three dimensions of an object in a single image. Construction drawings are the result of the use of engineering drawings to represent objects. 

Every engineer must be able to read and interpret drawings and the data contained within them. Projection methods are used to represent a 3D object in simple terms so that it can be understood more easily. It’s used in mechanical drawing and design so that the structure created by a designer can be communicated to manufacturers and builders. A pictorial view of a design can’t always show the details in complicated shapes that contain information related to how it will be manufactured. 

The spatial relationship between 3-D projections and Multiview projections must be understood. 

Let’s take a look at the projection system and the different types of projection used in engineering drawings. 

What is a projection in a mechanical engineering drawing? 

The purpose of engineering drawings, whether freehand sketching or computer-aided design (CAD), is to represent a physical object or a visual representation of an object so that it can be communicated to others. 

In an engineering drawing, a projection is a geometrically represented image (visual image or figure) of an object obtained on a surface or plane. The object could be a point, line, plane, solid, machine component, or building. 

Projections in technical drawings are created based on the observer or reader of the technical drawing. The observer is usually looking at the projection plane, also known as technical drawing paper. Furthermore, the projectors generate a projected view of the 3D model on technical drawing paper. Projectors are also rays that originate from the observer’s eyes or the observer himself. A view of the part can be generated on the projection plane between the observer and the part. 

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Types of Projection Methods Used in Mechanical Drawing 

There are four main types of projection methods used in mechanical drawing in order to convey information such as geometry, dimensions, tolerances, material, and finish. Let’s take a look at how they are drawn.  

1. Orthographic Projection

The orthographic projection shows a 3D object in two dimensions so that you can see three views: the front view, the side view, and the top view. It is usually positioned relative to the rules of first-angle or third-angle projection. The difference between the two is the view. However, it is not a realistic view of the object, because it requires multiple views to get all of the information in order to “see” the design. But more accurate measurements can be obtained because all views have the same scale. 

An orthographic projection can also include a section view, which is when a portion of the object is cross-sectioned along the specified plane, and the information about that section is displayed. It’s used to show internal specifications. 

2. Axonometric Projection

Axonometric is another type of orthographic projection. It is considered complex because only one image is drawn on the paper’s plane. There are three types of classifications. The most common is isometric, where the angles between the three axes are equal. The second is diametric. Only two of the angles between the axes are equal in this type. Trimetric is the third type. It can have three axes with different angles between them. It is the most common type. Axonometric projection is good for rectangular or square objects rather than objects with curved lines. 

3. Oblique Projection

Oblique is a simple type of projection that only requires one image. It can be drawn with traditional tools because it’s not complex. It depicts a 2D image of a 3D object. The object is drawn from the front view, and then the other areas are added in relation to it. It can be divided into two types based on the scaling of the object: cavalier projection, which uses a 1:1 scale, and cabinet projection, which uses a 2:1 scale. It uses parallel lines to produce the source of the object in the image. 

4. Perspective Projection

Of the four methods, perspective projection is not based on parallel lines. It is an approximate representation of the object as it would be seen by the eye with respect to depth perception. The projection lines emerge from a single point, showing the closer part larger than the more distant part. The object can feel more realistic with this projection, but it does require a good imagination. 

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